Senin, 07 Agustus 2017

History samudera pasai


Samudera pasai kingdom

Samudera Pasai is an Islamic kingdom located on the northern coast of Sumatera, Lhokseumawe City, North Aceh Province of Aceh. The kingdom of Samudera Pasai was founded by Meurah Silu, who has the title of Sultan Malik as-Saleh, around 1267. The existence of the Pasai Kingdom of Samudera is listed in the book Rihlah ila l-Masyriq (Wander to the East) by Abu Abdullah ibn Batuthah (1304-1368), the Moroccan traveler Who came to this country in 1345. Some historians also began to trace the existence of this kingdom sourced from Hikayat Pasai Kings, and this is associated with several tombs of the king and the invention of coins made of gold and silver with the name of the king.

The Kings of Pasai ,Tells about Pasai's establishment by Meurah Silu, after he replaced a king named Sultan Malik al-Nasser. Meurah Silu was previously located in an area called Samalanga then after the title of Sultan Malik as-Saleh, he died in 696 H or 1297 M.

In Saga Raja Pasai and Sulalatus Salatin the names Pasai and Samudera have been separated referring to two different areas, but in Chinese records the names are not distinguishable at all. While Marco Polo in his trip recorded some list of kingdoms on the east coast of Sumatra Island at that time, from south to north there are names Ferlec (Perlak), Basma and Samara (Ocean).

The reign of Sultan Malik as-Saleh was then followed by his son Sultan Muhammad Malik az-Zahir from his marriage to the daughter of the King of Perlak. During the reign of Sultan Muhammad Malik az-Zahir, gold coin as currency has been introduced in Pasai, along with the development of the Pasai Ocean Kingdom became one of the trade area as well as the development of da'wah of Islam.

Around the year 1326 Sultan Muhammad Malik az-Zahir died and was replaced by his son Sultan Mahmud Malik az-Zahir and reigned until 1345. During his reign, he was visited by Ibn Batuthah, then told that the sultan in the land of Samatrah (Samudera) And inhabitants of the Shafi'i school. During the reign of Sultan Ahmad Malik az-Zahir, the son of Sultan Mahmud Malik az-Zahir, came the attack of Majapahit between 1345 and 1350, and caused the Pasai Sultan to flee from the royal capital. The kingdom of Samudera Pasai arose again under the leadership of Sultan Zain al-Abidin Malik az-Zahir in 1383, and ruled until 1405. In the Chinese chronicle he was also known by the name of Tsai-nu-li-a-pi-ting-ki, Killed by King Nakur. Furthermore, the Sultanate of Pasai continued by his wife Sultanah Nahrasiyah.Meanwhile, if continue to the west to meet the kingdom of Lambri (Lamuri) mentioned at that time is 3 days and 3 nights from Pasai. During the visit Cheng Ho also presented a gift from the Chinese Emperor, Chakra Donya's Bell, around 1434 Sultan Pasai sent his brother known as Ha-li-zhi-han but died in Beijing. Emperor Xuande of the Ming Dynasty sent Wang Jinhong to Pasai to deliver the news. The central government of Pasai Sultanate lies between Krueng Jambo Aye (Sungai Jambu Air) and Krueng Pase (Pasai River), North Aceh.

Cheng Ho's fleet which led around 208 vessels visited the consecutive Samudera Pasai Kingdom in 1405, 1408 and 1412. Based on Cheng Ho's travel reports recorded by his aides like Ma Huan and Fei Xin. Geographically the Pasai Sultanate is described as having borders with high mountains to the south and east, and if it continues to the east bordering the Aru Kingdom, to the north by the sea, to the west by the two kingdoms, Nakur and Lide.

According to ibn Batuthah who spent about two weeks in Pasai, the kingdom does not have a stone fortress, but has lined its city with wood, a few kilometers from the harbor.

In the core area of ​​this kingdom there are mosques, and markets and traversed by a fresh river that empties into the sea. Ma Huan added, although the estuary is large but the waves are tempestuous and easily lead to the ship overturned. Thus the naming of Lhokseumawe which may mean the bay of which its waters swirl may be related to this.

In the government structure there is the term minister, syahbandar and kadi. While the sultans of both men and women were named by Tun, as were some of the royalty. The Pasai Sultanate has several subordinate kingdoms, and its rulers also have sultans.

In the government structure there is the term minister, syahbandar and kadi. While the sultans of both men and women were named by Tun, as were some of the royalty. The Pasai Sultanate has several subordinate kingdoms, and its rulers also have sultans.

During the reign of Sultan Muhammad Malik az-Zahir, the Perlak Kingdom had become part of Pasai's sovereignty, and he also placed one of his sons, Sultan Mansur in the Ocean. But in the time of Sultan Ahmad Malik az-Zahir, the Samudera region has become a unity with the name of Pasai Ocean that remains centered in Pasai. In the reign of Sultan Zain al-Abidin Malik az-Zahir, Lide (Kingdom of Pedir) is mentioned to be the subordinate kingdom of Pasai. Meanwhile Pasai also mentioned having a bad relationship with Nakur, the peak of this kingdom attacked Pasai and resulted in the Pasai Sultan killed.


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